For my final work, I decided to create the housing for my Homemade Hardare final, an analog synthesizer designed within Eagle (PCB design). Regarding the synthesizer design, it contained the following components: two oscillators with independent frequency and amplitude control, a low pass filter with cutoff frequency and resonance control, and a system output control.
My design approach to the housing contained a minimal aesthetic, as the synthesizer is a streamlined, minimal design. Regarding the housing, the following components were created: mounting for potentiometers (controls) and circuit boards, knobs for the mounted potentiometers, and a shell to finish the project. The size of this housing is 4' 3.5" (length) x 5.5" (width) x 3.5" (height).
Design elements not included in the rendered images include the following: wire harnesses, threaded inserts, a quarter inch audio jack, and an IEC power connector. I am intending to include these components in the Vectorworks project upon completing the initial milling process.
The bottom of the case contains mounts for the synthesizer PCB (small rectangle) and a perforated board ("I" shape) for potentiometer wiring. A spot has also been carved (large rectangle) to hold the power supply (Mean Well RT-50). Additionally, the two cylindrical components are utilized for screwing down the upper part of the case.
The small rectangular protrusions were designed for the potentiometer board, where the two outer pieces are used for screwing the unit, and the inner, smaller pieces were designed for support.
At this moment, the top part of the enclosure solely contains two cylindrical posts for screwing into the bottom. As mentioned, the IEC connection and audio jack will be incorporated upon milling this piece.
The knobs were designed in two different pieces to grant a "break" on the sides; this choice was purely made for aesthetic purposes. Additionally, it must be noted that the lack of "grip" on the top surface was made for the same reason. With that said, this latter feature will most likely include a type of surface indention in a future iteration for usability purposes.
I am currently under the impression that the initial milling will contain a few design issues, as I'm assuming that I am "off the mark" in a few areas.
Additionally, I am somewhat hesitant on my design choices pertaining to the potentiometer board. I believe that the chosen potentiometer shafts might be too short; thus, the inner knob carving will need to be extended. Additionally, the space underneath the potentiometer board might be too shallow for the wiring. If this is the case, the base can be extended downward to compensate for this issue.
It must also be noted that rubber pads will need to be added to the bottom of the case to "stick" the unit to the user's chosen surface.
Information provided during lecture pertained to the utilization of Vectorworks for 3D modeling. Accordingly, we were tasked to familiarize ourselves with the program's tools and create a 3D asset of our choosing. In addition to this assignmnent, we were asked to propose a final project for class.
VECTORWORKS 3D MODEL
Upon exploring the tools within Vectoworks for a shortwhile, I decided to create an object focussing on the Sweep and Deform tools. The following pictures pertain to the former:
Afterwards, the object was rotated and duplicated four times in an arragment that surrounded the initial creation. Thereafter, they were combined as a single object.
The Deform tool was then utilized to twist the obect:
Thereafter, a cylinder was created and centered within the twisted object. It was then utilized to cut a hole within the initial model.
Rendered project images:
PROPOSED FINAL PROJECT
As I have yet to solidify an enclosure for my Homemade Hardware's miniature synthesizer project, I am hoping to utilize the remaing time to design this enclosure for my PCB design. I intend to expand upon the initial enclosure design all while maintaining a minimalist aesthetic. Key design elements of this project will pertain to the outer shell, oversized knobs, and inner mounting components.
As I still had not acquired a Silhouette Cameo due to a delivery error, I was unable to partake in the utilization of this machine for the week's assignment. Instead, it was recommended that I hand cut forms derived from the website Templatemaker.nl.
Since I had an abudance of thick shipping cardboard, I decided to utilize this material for the week's work. Additionally, my X-Acto knife would be an appropriate tool for this particular situation.
After perusing Templatemaker's site, I decided to utilize the gift box design, as it appeared to be a great form for prototyping enclosures in future projects. It must be noted that since I was utilizing my printer to copy the design, I was limited to dimensions contained within a sheet of printer paper. Hence, my 6x6x4 specification was set to a ratio in accordance to the paper size.
After cutting out the design, it was taped to a piece of carboard. Thereafter, the design was traced with an X-Acto knife and cut out of the material.
Since the cardboard was rather thick, the design's perforated marks were matched with deep slices within the cardboard. The idea behind this modification was to allow an easier manipulation of the folded portions.
As I did not possess any glue at my residence, I decided to utilize packaging tape to secure the cutout's sides to one another.
Upon closing the top portion of the box to the inside of the unit, I noticed that the flap did not securely hold this top area in place. In light of this situation, I decided to modify the slide flaps to allow room for the folded piece. Furthermore, I extended the flap through the taping of a long cardboard piece.
As these modifications appeared to resolve the issue, it became evident that the utilization of this thick cardboard would necessitate slight design deviations in future form fabrications of this manner.
Within this week's lecture, we covered information pertaining to the Silhouette Cameo cutting machine and online CNC manufacturing. Regarding the former, a delivery mistake prohibited my exploration of the machine. However, the unit should hopefully be redelivered within the next few days. However, the lecture pertaining to the CNC manufacturing led to the assigned task of gathering vendor quotes for a self-designed CNC part.
It must be noted that my submitted component was a slightly revamped design of my prior "TACOS" sign.
This particular week pertained to the fabrication of the midterm CNC project. As we were advised to create a work that was portable, due to the limited space and transportation requirement, I decided to fabricate a foot stool with a design revolving around the prior week's half lap joint.
Under the suggestion of one my peers, I decided to partake in the group ordering of large sheets of plywood for our work. While these sheets were particularly large, the shop had the ability to cut these pieces into workable CNC-sized pieces.
Regarding the design of this footstool, I took a pencil-and-paper approach to solidify the style and dimensions of the unit. Upon a few iterations, I was left with a design with a plentiful amount of half lap joints. While not evident in the drawing, dog bone cuts were also required for elements of this work.
Afterwards, I began translating this design into Vectorworks. Regarding file creation, I attempted to separate each piece to its own independent file or one with similiar items. This approach allowed a build-and-test fabrication process.
Upon creating these files, they were imported into Mastercam for CNC preparation. During this process, each piece was treated with proper cut order and milling specifications.
The CNC'ing then commenced for each piece.
Upon finishing these cuts, each piece was sanded to various degrees, where some were more splintered than others.
Lastly, the unit was put together.
The project was mildly successful, where further refinements could be made to the fitting of some components. Regarding this statement, I am currently questioning the amount of tolerance that I alloted for each piece; there may have been a bit too much extra room.
Additionally, I believe that the splintering issues with the plywood pertained to my utilization of the chosen mill bit. After changing from an downward to upward flat bit for the final top piece, I noticed that this particular cut did not have any issues with the outer layers of the plywood during the final cutting pass. Research of this issue within the web appears to concur with my conclusion; however, I remain uncertian of my claim, as I have no experience within this area. Perhaps two files for each piece, where the first pass is with a downward, and the last pass is with an upward, would allow for cleany cut pieces?
Regarding this week's lecture, we students were provided information pertaining to the creation of joinery with the CNC mill. Furthemore, the instruction was catered towards our next two week's of work, where we would utilize joinery for our midterm project. For this coming week, we were required to cut a joint for testing midterm project testing purposes.
As my background to woodwork and design is somewhat limited, I chose the approachable cross lap joint. Furthermore, my chosen midterm project will be heavily reliant on this particular cut.
This work was handled in a similar fashion to last week's CNC work, where the creation process began with translating a sketch into vectorworks. However, focus pertained to the handling of tolerance for the joints and angular cuts for the joints, where the former was for fitting and the latter was for proper shaping.
Following the design within Vectworks was the utilization of MasterCAM for the CNC mill. Once again, tolerance was at the focal point. Additionally, importance was placed on cutting order for a logical handling of the CNC process.
After finishing the work within MasterCAM, the milling process commenced.
The first attempt left much to be desired with the tolerance set for the joint pocket cuts, as the two pieces did not sit flush against each other.
In light of the situation, I proceeded back to MasterCAM and added an additional 0.01 tolerance. Thereafter, I restarted the CNC process.
I was mostly content with the second cut. However, I am currently debating if the tolerance would need to be adjusted for the pocket width, as it appears that the joint might be a smidgen too tight. In light of this situation, I might run another test cut prior to the handling of my midterm project. And regarding this particular project, I am intending to create a foot stool, primarily utilizing cross lap joints for the design.
This week's lecture pertained to Techno CNC Systems' HD II Tabletop machine, a larger mill than the prior week's unit. Regarding the utilization of this unit, we were given instruction pertaining to both Vectorworks and the newly introduced MasterCAM. The latter is software that produces files for the HD II Tabletop.
Regarding this week's assignment, we students were asked to utilize this CNC for a creation of our choosing.
As mentioned, the design process began with the utilization of Vectorworks. For this particular project, I chose to create a sign, reflective of the in-class tutorial. Furthermore, a nearby piece of scrapwood, shaped in a convenient rectangular manner, also influenced this decision. To begin, I took measurements of the piece, and designed the work on top of the wood.
Thereafter, I translated these measurements and design into a Vectorworks file and exported the work as a DXF for MasterCAM.
I then uploaded the file into MasterCAM, setting the machine type and order of cutting operations for the CNC, beginning with the pocket (inner) cut and ending with the contour (outer) cut. Additionally, I verified these operations with the built-in animation cutting.
After exporting these instructions as G-code onto a flash drive, I connected this drive into the backside of the CNC. Next, I screwed down the wood into the spoil board, followed with the setting of the zero-point for the XY axis and z axis. Thereafter, I attached the vacuum component and began the cutting process.
Prior to finishing the outer cut, I screwed the inner part of the wood piece onto the spoil board to secure the sign for the final pass.
Upon removing the piece from the spoil board, it was sanded and finished with butcher's block oil. It must be noted that during the sanding component, the "T" accidently fell off the sign. Though, this issue was corrected with the utilization of wood glue.
While this project was mostly successful with the final outcome, the sanding of inner letters and cuts needs to be properly handled. I intend to investigate techniques in this area. Additionally, during the homing of the z axis, I accidently broke a bit by driving it into the wood piece. I intend to not make this mistake again.
Continuing from last week's lecture, we students recieved additional information pertaining to the utilization of the CNC mill. Specifically, we were introduced to the CAD program Vectorworks. Additionally, we were also provided guidance in the creation of fitted items in conjuction and also introduced to additionaly fabrication techniques related to the CNC.
Regarding this week's assignment, we students were asked to utilize one or more of the provided fabrication techniques towards a project of our choosing. As I did not have any current ITP class projects than entailed any fabrication, I chose to create a drink coaster comprised of CNC'd aluminum and wood.
The beginning of this creation began with the utilization of Vectorworks, where I designed both the wood and aluminum pieces. With this particular design, the CNC's aluminum slab would lie within a opened cut in the middle of the piece of wood. Furthermore, the top of the wood piece would have symmetrical square cutouts, where protruding cuts of aluminum would lie flush with the top of the coaster.
After creating these designs, I exported the the projects to Illustrator. Within this enviroment, I began deconstructing each component into layers, where I would be able to utilize the CNC in a methodical, constructive manner.
Upon finishing the re-working in Illustrator, I exported the individual layers of the project for handling within Bantam's CNC software. Regarding the CNC'ing process, I decided to begin with the aluminum, setting all appropriate parameters in accordance to my project's requirements.
Thereafter, the CNC'ing of the aluminum slab commenced. The initial cut handle the shallow engraving of the block, followed by the outer cut of the piece.
After inspecting the CNC'd aluminum piece, small, thin edges surronded the outer edges of the cut. This issue was swiftly handle with a rasp.
Upon finishing the aluminum component, I began tackling the wooden component of the project. In an identical manner, I began exporting the Illustrator layers into the Bantam sofftware. Thereafter, the milling commenced, beggining with the shallow middle cut, followed with the square hole cuts, and finishing with the outer component cut.
Unfortunately, the wooden piece did not suffice the needs the project, as the protuding aluminum cuts did not fit inside the wooden square holes.
Regarding the prior picture, I attempted to file the wooden holes to a shape suitable for the aluminum piece. Unfortunately, I was unsuccessful.
Future projects pertaining to fitted pieces will be handled will better precision. Regarding this skill builder, I failed to properly handle wooden piece's hole tolerance. Additionaly, the aluminum protruding squares needed to be properly filleted for the rounded square holes.
Information given during our second week of class pertained to the utilization of the CNC mill. Regarding software, Illustrator was utilized for the design component, while Bantam Tools' Milling Machine software handled the milling portion.
Regarding this week's assignment, we students were asked to familiarize ourselves with the OtherMill CNC machine through the design and milling of an object.
To start, I created two simple shapes within an Illustrator file, utilizing the ruler for size reference. Regarding the shapes, they were an oval and square, where the former surrounded the latter. Furthermore, the oval was only formed with the utilization of a stroke and the square with a fill. Note: the former denotes a cut, while the latter denotes an etch.
Upon finishing this illustration and exporting it as an .svg, I began rummaging through the scrap wood and found a piece of basswood. Thereafter, I took measurements of this wood with calipers to ensure that this particular size could be utilized with the milling machine.
Upon verification, I began prepping the milling unit by vacuuming the inside and cleaning the base plate with acetone. Thereafter, I attached an 1/8 inch flat endmill to the collet. Afterwards, I taped (double-sided) the bottom of my wood to the plate.
Upon finishing the physical component of the prep, I connected my computer to the milling machine and began tweaking settings, adjusting the size of the material, the tool type (endmill), engraving depth, and cutout placement.
After re-homing the machine and finding the z-axis during the tool type selection component, I began the milling process. First, the square engraving was handled.
Thereafter, the oval cutting was triggered.
It must be noted that during the milling process, wood splintering occured. This minor problem was handled after the milling was finished, where sandpaper knocked off this excess wood. Additionally, I forgot to attach the fan to the endmill before the initial square engraving, causing me to pause the device and clean the inside during the process. This issue was remedied prior to the oval cut.
The biggest, personal takeaways from this lab pertained to two items: proper alignment of cutout file and etching quality. Regarding the former, the cutout oval had a straight edge due to its cutout placement, coinciding with the edge of the wood piece. Future projects will be set properly to remedy this situation.
Regarding the etching quality, I have taken note that the etched ridges will need further refinement after the cut. Perhaps a thinner endmill might be assistive with this particular issue.
For the first week of class, we students were granted information and instruction pertaining to the utilization of routers. Additionally, we were asked to utilize a router in conjuction with router bits and endmills to familiarize ourselves with the tool.
As I took interest in the circle jig that was presented in class, I decided to utilize this attachment to begin my familiarization with the router. Upon grabbing a router from the shelf, I removed the attached base plate. Thereafter, I grabbed both the base plate with the screwed-in circle jig and an endmill, and then attached both items to the router. Additionally, I located a piece of scrap plywood for testing.
Upon inserting the dowel within the center point of the precut, circular piece of plywood, I positioned the jig in a manner where the protruding dowel was inserted into one of the jig's holes. Additionally, the scrap wood was clamped to the precut, circular piece for stabilization purposes.
Thereafter, I began the cutting process. Upon placing the spinning endmill on top of the scrap wood to begin the initial cut, I noticed a small bit of smoke. After stopping the router and inspecting the small cut, it was apparent that the wood was burnt. To alleviate this issue, I lessened the protrusion of the endmill and repeated the cut. Furthermore, I continued this cut with additional endmill protrusion adjusments until the circular cut was completed.
To further solidify my comfort with the router and jig, I performed the same operations on another piece of scrapwood. During the initial cut, the dowel slipped out of the circular wood's drilled hole. This problem resulted in a slight slipping of the router during the cut. Upon reseating the dowel, I continued the process until the cut was completed.
Afterwards, I decided to utilize one of the circular-cut pieces to test the router table. Upon attaching an endmill to the table's router, I adjusted the endmill's protrusion from the base plate. Thereafter, I adjusted the table's guides for the cut. The cutting process then commenced. Upon successfully making a straight, shallow cut to the wood from one end to the other end, I decided to attempt a cut contained within the inner surface area of the wood. This attempt was a unsuccessful, as the wood slipped during the process.
Despite having issues with the mentioned inner cut, I decided to move onto the utilization of router bits for modifiying the edges of wood. After installing a router bit and clamping the scrap wood to the table, I began the cut. Upon successfully utilizing the Chamfer bit, I decided to try the Rabbet bit. It must be noted that I was impressed with the easy manner of cutting the edges to both shapes.
While this excercise definitely granted confidence in handling and utlizing routers, the most noteable lesson throughout the process pertained to setup. Specifically, properly adjusting the protrusion of both endmills and router bits is key to utilizing this tool. Additionally, positioning and securing material for cutting is also a necessity for handling proper cuts.